Полянцева Е.Р.

УДК 72.01

ПОЛЯНЦЕВА ЕКАТЕРИНА РОМАНОВНА, аспирант,

notneb@ya.ru

ЯНКОВСКАЯ ЮЛИЯ СЕРГЕЕВНА, докт. архитектуры, профессор,

jul3203226@gmail.com

Уральская государственная архитектурно-художественная академия,

620075, г. Екатеринбург, ул.Карла Либкнехта, 23

СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ  АНАЛИЗ  КОНЦЕПЦИЙ  ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЯ  БЕЗОПАСНОЙ  АРХИТЕКТУРНОЙ  СРЕДЫ

В статье даны краткие характеристики концепций и программ, примеры районов, жилых комплексов и отдельных зданий, проектированных или реконструированных с применением их принципов. Рассмотрена роль данных концепций в контексте современных требований, предъявляемых к архитектурному окружению человека, взаимосвязь поведения людей и городского окружения и влияние сигналов, подаваемых окружающей городской средой, на действия потенциальных преступников. Проведен сравнительный анализ основных зарубежных направлений по проектированию и реабилитации городской среды, защищенной от преступных посягательств. Направления сравнены в отношении их целей, задач, основных методов и принципов, дополнительно указано на проблемы, связанные с претворением их в жизнь.

Ключевые слова: устойчивое развитие; архитектура; безопасность, новый урбанизм; контроль доступа; наблюдение.

Библиографический список

  1. Джекобс, Д. Смерть и жизнь больших американских городов / Д. Джекобс. – М. : Новое издательство, 2011. – 460 с.
  2. Линч, К. Образ города / К. Линч. – М. : Стройиздат, 1982. – С. 50–53.
  3. Atlas, R.L. The sustainability of CPTED: Less magic more science! / Randall L. Atlas // The CPTED Journal. – 1 (1), 2002. – Р. 3–14.
  4. Atlas, R.L. 21st Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Crime Prevention / Randall L. Atlas. – Los-Angeles: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2008. – Р. 81–84.
  5. Brantingham, P.J. Environmental Criminology / P.J.Brantingham, L.P. Brantingham. – Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1981. – 282 р.
  6. Grönlund, В. On CPTED – Crime Prevention through Urban Design / Bo Grönlund // Семинар «Towards the Humane City for the 21st century». – Stockholm, 2000. – Р. 2.
  7. Clarke, R.V. Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies / R.V. Clarke, Ronald V. Clarke. – Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston, 1992. – 43 р.
  8. Crowe, T.D. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design / T.D. Crowe, D.L. Zahm // NAHB Land Development magazine. Fall 1994. – Р.22–27.
  9. Duany, A. The thirteen points of traditional neighborhood development / A. Duany, E. Plater-Zuberk // FFF Newsletter, January 1996. – Р. 3–4.
  10. Katz, P. The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community / P. Katz. – New York : McGraw-Hill, 1994. – 245 р.
  11. Newman, O. Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design / O. Newman. – New York : Macmillan, 1972. – 264 р.
  12. O’Toole, R. Crime-Friendly Neighborhoods: How «New Urbanist» Planners Sacrifice Safety in the Name of «Openness» and «Accessibility» / Randal O’Toole, Stephen Town. – February, 2005. – Access mode : http://reason.com/archives/2005/02/01/crime-friendly-neighborhoods. Accessed 10.09.2006. – 3 р.
  13. Reijnhoudt, P. Crime Opportunity Profiling of Streets / P. Reijnhoudt. – Summary of presentation in Munster, Germany, September 2004. – Р. 105–109.
  14. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. The state of the world’s cities: globalization and urban culture / UN-HABITAT, 2004. – Р. 150–183.
  15. Wilson, J. Broken Windows / J. Wilson, G. Kelling // The Atlantic Monthly. – March 1982. – Access mode: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/_atlantic_monthly-broken_windows.pdf. − Accessed 21.05.2013. – 10 р.

 ______________________________

EKATERINA R. POLIANZEVA, Research Assistant,

notneb@ya.ru

YULIA S. YANKOVSKAYA, DSc, Professor,

jul3203226@gmail.com

Ural State Academy of Architecture and Arts,

23, Karl Libknekht Str., 620075, Ekaterinburg, Russia

COMPARATIVE  ANALYSIS  OF  CONCEPTS  OF  CREATING  SAFE  BUILT  ENVIRONMENT

The paper presents the description of concepts and programs, regions, residential areas and houses designed or reconstructed using these concepts. The role of these concepts is shown in the context of modern requirements for the architectural environment, interaction between people and this environment, and its signals that have an effect on actions of would-be criminals. The comparative analysis is conducted for main foreign tendencies of design and rehabilitation of the built environment protected from criminals. International goals, objectives, methods, and principles are compared herein. Additionally shown are problems connected with their practical implementation.

Keywords: sustainable development; architecture; safety; new urbanism; access control; observation.

References

  1. Jacobs J. The death and life of great american cities. Moscow : Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2011. 460 p. (transl. from Engl.)
  2. Lynch K. The image of the City. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1982. Pp. 50–53. (transl. from Engl.)
  3. Atlas R.L. The sustainability of CPTED: Less magic more science! The CPTED Journal. 1 (1), 2002. Pp. 3–14.
  4. Atlas R.L. 21st Century security and CPTED: Designing for critical infrastructure protection and crime prevention. Los-Angeles: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2008. Pp. 81–84.
  5. Brantingham P.J., Brantingham L.P. Environmental criminology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1981. 282 p.
  6. Grönlund В. On CPTED – Crime prevention through urban design. Seminar 'Towards the Humane City for the 21st century'. Stockholm, 2000. Pp.2–3.
  7. Clarke R.V. Situational crime prevention: successful case studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston, 1992. 43 p.
  8. Crow T.D. Crime prevention through environmental design. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991. Pp. 22–27.
  9. Duany A., Plater-Zyberk E. The thirteen points of traditional neighborhood development. FFF Newsletter, 1996. Pp.2–3.
  10. Katz P. The new urbanism: toward an architecture of community. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. 245 p.
  11. Newman O. Defensible space: crime prevention through urban. New York: Macmillan, 1972. 264 p.
  12. O’Toole R., Town S. Crime-friendly neighborhoods: how "new urbanist" planners sacrifice safety in the name of "openness" and "accessibility". February, 2005. Available at : http://reason.com/archives/2005/02/01/crime-friendly-neighborhoods. Last visited on Sept. 2006.
  13. Reijnhoudt P. Crime opportunity profiling of streets. Summary of presentation in Munster, Germany, September 2004. Pp. 105–109.
  14. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat). The state of the world’s cities: globalization and urban culture, 2004. Pр.170–183.
  15. Wilson J., Kelling G. Broken windows. The Atlantic Monthly. March 1982. Available at : http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/_atlantic_monthly-broken_windows.pdf. Last visited on May 2013.

Статья | (677 Кб)